Albert P.C. CHAN, Arshad Ali JAVED, Francis K.W. WONG, Carol K.H. HON, Hafiz ZAHOORand Sainan LYU
The Hong Kong construction industry is currently facing ageing problem and labour shortage. There are opportunities for employing ethnic minority construction workers to join this hazardous industry. These ethnic minority workers are prone to accidents due to communication barriers. Safety communication is playing an important role for avoiding accidents on construction sites. However, the ethnic minority workers are not very fluent in the local language and facing safety communication problems when working with local workers. Social network analysis (SNA) is a tool which can help to identify the safety communication flow on construction site. It can be used to obtain measures of safety communication such as centrality, density, and betweenness within ethnic minorities and local workers and to generate sociograms that visually depict communication pattern within effective and ineffective safety networks. The aim of this paper is to present the application of SNA for improving the safety communication of ethnic minority in the construction industry of Hong Kong. The paper provides the theoretical background of SNA approaches for data collection and analysis using the software UCINET and NetDraw, to determine the predominant safety communication network structure and pattern of ethnic minority on site.
Lee Yeel Loon, Aftab Hameed Memon, Chai Teck Jung, Sam Toong Hai
This study is carried out for assessing the performance of a geo probe for determining ultimate bearing capacity and shear strength of soft soils. Experimental work was carried out on 4 different types of soft soils with two trials for each sample. The tests were conducted at UTHM RECSESSS research centre. Geo Probe comprised of a cylindrical hollow PVC pipe of 50mm for internal diameter and 100mm for the external diameter in filled with foamed concrete of 1200kg/m3 density. The performance of the probe was assessed based on ratio of ultimate bearing capacity over undrained shear strength in particular study of soil. Commonly, ultimate bearing capacity by five times the undrained shear strength is accepted in case of soft soils. The tests conducted for the geo probe showed that the ratio of ultimate bearing capacity over undrained shear strength for the tested samples varies from 1.0 to 6.0 for different loading which shows the performance of the geo probe is acceptable and useful for determining the ratio of ultimate bearing capacity, qu and the undrained shear strength, Su.
Sheraz Abbas, Ali Raza Khalid, Atta Ullah Shah
This paper presents the study of Brick masonry that behaves differently under various patterns of static loading applied. It is a common practice to determine the compressive strength of brick masonry under gradually increasing axial loading (known as monotonic loading) thus by ignoring the effect of cyclic loading which the real masonry structures experience during earthquakes. Experimental work carried out by researchers on masonry walls indicate that brick masonry is very sensitive to cyclic loading and undergoes relatively more damages under the action of cyclic loading compared to monotonically increasing static loading. Behavior of brick masonry will change and there will be a definite effect on its compressive properties. Due to contrast behavior of brick masonry under monotonic loading and static cyclic loading, it becomes a matter of concern to investigate the influence of loading types on mechanical properties of masonry. To investigate this, 12 masonry prisms were cast. Six prisms each were tested under monotonic and cyclic load. Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were determined for each loading type and their value are compared.
Aftab Alam, Ali Raza Khalid, Attaullah Shah, Noor ul Amin
Loading tests on short steel pipe piles were conducted in the steel drum filled with clayey soil. The aim of this study was to find the ultimate load carrying capacity of these piles for emergent construction of shelters in calamity hit areas. The pile was three feet long and three inches outside diameter. The steel drum was fabricated for this purpose. It had depth of four feet, diameter of three feet. A reaction beam was welded to the diametrically opposite columns on the top open end of the drum. The reaction beam had a clearance of 1 foot above the top open end of the drum. The basic, index and engineering properties of both disturbed and undisturbed clay were determined in the Soil Mechanics laboratory. Four different densities having a water content of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were used to find the ultimate load carrying capacity of these piles. The ultimate load carrying capacities were found in three conditions of pile both ends open, lower end closed and upper end closed. When the above data were plotted, the conclusion of the study was that ultimate load carrying capacity of the short pipe pile in soft clay could be estimated from the field moisture content or density of the clayey soil. Moreover, the 3rd condition of the pile foundation was recommended as the pile could easily be penetrated to the closed top end in which case it would derive ultimate end bearing capacity at the bottom of pile because the enclosed clay in the pipe would act as a solid piped pile.
Yousuf Ali, Bilal Ahmad Adil, Ahmed Rafique
For a greener and sustainable future we have to develop innovative ways to save fuel and mitigate carbon footprints therefore develop alternative ways by which building materials can be modified. In this study waste paper sludge ash (hypo sludge) was partially replaced as 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in place of cement in concrete for M-15 mix (i.e. concrete design mix of 1:2:4 cement, sand and aggregate as per IS 456: 2000) and tested for its compressive strength, tensile strength, water absorption and weight up to 28 days of age and compared with conventional concrete. This work examines the possibility of using hypo sludge as partial replacement of cement for new concrete. From the results, it is found that hypo sludge can be used as cement replacement up to 15% by weight and particle size less than 90μm to prevent decrease in workability. It is found that compressive strength of concrete is increased up to 17% compared to ordinary concrete for 15% replacement for cube and splitting strength of cylinder increases up to 15% for 15% replacement. The %age water absorption is increased with the addition of hypo sludge. Additionally, the addition of hypo sludge results in lighter concrete material i.e. weight reduced in replacement of cement with hypo sludge.
Muhammad Shahid, Dr. Hamza Farooq Gabriel, Dr. Amjad Nabi, Dr. Muhammad Salik Javaid
The aim of this research is to identify the effects of land use changes on the rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relations in Simly watershed, Islamabad. In this study Double Mass Curve was used to identify the change in rainfall-runoff and runoff-sedimentation relationship of Simly catchment. The rainfall -runoff data of Simly catchment for the period 1983-2012 were drawn, for two periods that is from 1983 till 1994 and 1995 to 2012 and were selected for analysis by using Double Mass Curve. Double Mass Curve s were plotted for annual and monsoon month’s rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment. From the slope trend lines it was observed that more runoff and sedimentation occurred during 1995-2012. Satellite images of 1992, 2000 and 2010 were classified to get land use information of the Simly catchment and it was observed that more land use changes occurred during 1995-2012. The significant result showed that water bodies reduced by 46 %, forest reduced by 26%, vegetation and agriculture reduced by 16%, Rangeland increased by 15%, built up area increased by 271%, bare land increased by 129 %. In order to reduce Soil erosion Deforestation and loss of water bodies, developmental activities should be reduced in catchment area of Simly dam.
Sajjad Ali, Muhammad Tahir, Mahmood Ahmad, Waheed ur Rehman, Shah Room
Floods are the nation’s greatest natural disaster. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, Floods cause an average of $6 billion of property damage, claim 140 lives and prompt more Presidential disaster declarations per year than any other hazard. Similarly, the severe floods, resulting from heavy monsoon rains and freak weather systems commenced in July, 2010, in the high altitude, northern parts of Pakistan. The rains, which broke a long standing,100 years record flood in early 1900s, rapidly became devastating for the provinces of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Punjab, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. They also inflicted heavy damage in some districts of Sindh and Baluchistan. Keeping in view the damages, it is required to have a proper alarming and management system to minimize the chances of destruction. In this perspective, accurate estimates of probable future floods should be worked out as planning, design and construction of engineering infrastructure projects often requires consideration of the potential flood risks. Similarly the estimation of different engineering parameters like shear, flow graphs, top width of water plots, water surface profiles at cross section of rivers are required in many civil engineering projects such as design of bridge openings and culverts, drainage networks, flood relief protection schemes and the determination of flood risk. This research work is mainly focused to find these parameters at every cross section in tabular and graphical form to locate the line of hazards at every point in the study area. The research is carried out on three tributaries of river swat that run through urban area of main Swat city of KPK Pakistan. The devastating Flood of 2010 is taken as the peak discharge for analysis. It was aimed to collect geometric data and flow rates of 2010 flood on these tributaries using HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System) and GIS (Geographic Information System) software as the basic tools to find hydraulic parameters and the probable boundaries up to which the flood can reach in future.
Sajjad Ali, Zia Ur Rahman, Qasim khan, Shah Room, Ziad Khan
Recycled aggregates are comprised of crushed, graded inorganic particles processed from the materials that have been used in the constructions and demolition debris. The aim for this research was to determine the performance of recycled aggregate in the structural concrete giving a better understanding on the properties of concrete with recycled aggregates, as an alternative material to coarse aggregate in structural concrete. The investigation was carried out using workability test, compressive test and indirect tensile Test. Test Samples were prepared from the virgin aggregate and workability test, compressive test and indirect tensile test were performed. After testing, samples were recycled to obtain recycled aggregate, a replica of demolished concrete structure in real life. The recycled aggregate samples were prepared in two batches. In the first batch the water cement ratio was kept same (0.55) as that in case of virgin concrete. In the second stage the water cement ratio was increased up to 0.60 to check the variation of concretes specimen in strength and workability. It was found that at the same water / cement ratios, the workability of virgin concrete is higher than that of recycled concrete. Similarly at water / cement ratio of 0.55, the compressive strength and Tensile strength of recycled concrete is appreciably lower than that of virgin concrete. However, at higher w/c ratio of 0.60, the compressive and tensile strength of recycled concrete is very close to that of virgin concrete. Unlike virgin concrete in which compressive strength decreases as water / cement ratio increases, in recycled concrete the contrary is the case, i.e. strength increases with increase in water / cement ratios. Recycled aggregated can be used with confidence in construction works with increased water cement ratio. The environmental issue can be effectively addressed by avoiding the dumping of the demolished materials associated with the elimination costs pertaining to the disposing operations.
Zia ur Rahman, Dr-Irshad Ahmad
This study aims to disclose the potential problems pertaining to soil mass of District Bannu in the form of geotechnical and mineralogical details, obtained by performing various kinds of tests on soil samples collected from selected spots, where the unusual cracks were observed to have been appeared in the pavements, boundary walls and some other parts of the buildings. Similar cracks were observed in most parts of the world where the soil was found to be expansive which depends on clay mineralogy, binding agents, migration of water beneath the surface and the ability of soil to absorb water. X-Ray diffraction analysis was used to study the minerals present in the soil and its fabric was studied with the help of Scanning electron microscopy and those minerals were explored which are not involved in the swelling phenomenon such as quartz and poligorskite Geotechnical investigation was performed by digging the trial pits and collecting soil samples in polythene bags for determining its atterberg,s limits and studying different geotechnical reports prepared by soil mechanics lab, UET Peshawar. The soil was found to lie within the range termed as low plasticity clay which is not that much vulnerable to swelling.
Mahmood Ahmad, Naseem Ahmad, Zia Ur Rahman, Sajjad Ali
This research work aims at facilitating access to the safe drinking water for urban communities of informal settlement centers by analyzing the water samples in District Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Pakistan. Particular emphasis is placed on the poor urban community where major constrains are already insufficient and unsafe water quality. Safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation are prerequisites for health, but these associations achieved greater importance when large numbers of displaced people from North Waziristan Agency (NWA) seek shelter in overcrowded settlement centers in Bannu where there are no established facilities to encourage hygiene and other barriers to prevent the transmission of disease. In this study, total one hundred water samples were collected from the Tube Wells, Water Storage Tanks, Consumer Taps and Household Utensils. The results revealed that 67% water samples were found unsafe for potable use owing to the bacteriological contamination either at Water Storage Tanks or at Consumer Taps or at Household utensils. The conclusions drawn from the study are the lack of drinking-water quality monitoring and surveillance programs in the under study area, weak institutional arrangements and the absence of a legal framework for drinking-water quality issues have aggravated the situation. Above all the public awareness of the issue of water quality is dismally low. This research work is focused to highlight the prevailing situation regarding potable water quality.
Aashan Ijaz, Shah Room, Muhammad Ahmad Rana, Sajjad Ali, Muhammad Aleem
Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. Atterberg limits include liquid limits, plastic limits, and shrinkage limits. The standard method of determination of Atterberg limits are stated in ASTM Standards. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, the truth is, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.
Shah Room, Muhammad Aleem, Umair Anwar Awan, Muhammad Ahmad Rana, Yusra Akram
Health aspects enforced to ponder a study on asphalt which incorporate rubber crumbs to increase strength and flexibility of asphalt. Disposal of waste tires is a menace and it’s a serious problem globally because it is not easily biodegradable as these tires consume large spaces, open burning cause serious problems. By the use of rubber tires, this scrap is utilized efficiently and reduces the cost of asphalt to produce economical system. The asphalt is absorbed by the rubber particles which swells at high temperature allowing greater concentration of liquid asphalt. The partial replacement of crumb rubber in asphalt is 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (D05, D10, D15, D20). The analysis of incorporated asphalt was done in hot mix asphalt. The generated results showed that the value for resilient modulus and creep stiffness is more as compared to the conventional asphalt and in the accumulated strain the values are much lesser which is a positive approach.
Kamran Khan, Irshad Ahmad, Asmat Ullah, Waqas Ahmad, Bilal Ahmad
Interface direct shear tests (small & large scale) were performed on sand & concrete interface using different normal stresses, constant shear rate and different sand densities. Small scale Interface direct shear tests were performed on sand & concrete interface in the conventional direct shear test apparatus under 5 different normal stresses. Similar procedure was adopted for large scale direct shear test. Shear stress verses shear strain data was plotted for each test. Mohr’s circle was plotted for small and large scale interface direct shear test. An increase in the peak of Shear stress verses shear displacement curves was observed with the increase of normal stress and sand density. Interface friction angle () was also increased with the rise in sand density but showed a decrease with the increase of scale of direct shear test.
A. A. Shah, O. Tariq, U. Amjad, H. Afridi
In this research modeling of piezo-electric smart structural health monitoring systems is presented. The work is aimed at determining the actuation effects being transferred from the actuators to the host and the resulting overall structural response. To obtain the amount of these actuations, the system of the host structure and an actuator has been modeled by using coupled finite element boundary element method in frequency domain. The host structure, which is assumed as an isotropic elastic solid region is modeled as a half space. The piezoelectric ceramic region is modeled by the 3-D finite element method, while the elastic half space with boundary element method. Finite element model of piezoelectric ceramic and boundary element model of the elastic half space are coupled together at their interface such that the vibrations of the piezo-actuator induce vibrations in the elastic half space. The numerical results show that high jump in magnitude of horizontal displacements at the corners of the actuator attached to the structure occurs, which is an indication of high stress concentration, of the shear stress type at the corners. The presented work is a step towards modeling of structural health monitoring systems.
Muhammad Abbas Quershi, Habil Ahmad, Shaukat Ali Khan, Atta Ullah Shah,
Earthquake risk assessment is esseantial for pre-disaster ad post-disaster mitigation strtagies. Wide research is carried out on the assessmet of risk on small regions only, but no research on the assessment of earthquake is carried out at large scale. The objective of this research is assessment of risk asscoiated with earthquake hazard at Provoincial level of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Pakistan. Earthquake hazard is calculated as Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), being calculated by ERA framework developed by Khan (2011) for risk assessment. Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) of Ambarasy’s is used for hazard Assessment while buiding inventory is developed projecting census data with minimal field sampling. Maximin value of PGA of 0.39g was find out in region of district Mansehra, battagram and shangla. Average Risk per $1000 ranges between ($5 to $145) depends on location and class of building. Pre-earthquake and post-earthquake mitigation strategies are recommended based on results.
Hazrat Amin, Dr Atta Ullah Shah, Aftab Alam
The aim of this research work was to determine the characteristics of silica fume and marble dust for application in structural concrete. Silica Fume is a byproduct from the electrostatic extraction of iron silicate. Marble Dust is a grounded marble fine particles also another byproduct during process of marble cutting and finishing in marble industry. The scope of this project work is to determine the combined effect of silica fume and marble dust on concrete and comparing it by using various percentage replacements of silica fume and marble dust with cement in concrete. The research work was carried out by doing Abrasion Test, Slump Test, Compression Test and Flexure Test. The samples were divided into four groups based on partial replacement of cement. The workability of concrete was reduced comparatively with increase in the replacement with cement. The control sample were casted of concrete with 0% replacement, the marble dust replacement was kept constant to 30% of the cement for partially replaced samples and silica fume was replaced as 0%, 5% and 10% of cement of the partially replaced samples. The compressive strength and flexure strength of the samples was reduced with increase in partial replacement of cement.
Shah Room, Mohsin Azam, Sajjad Ali, Akhtar Gul, Muhammad Ahmad Rana
Different Slab systems are used in construction having different structural characteristics. These all systems have different Architectural appearance and strength. Selecting appropriate type of slab for a particular building is based on loads, spans and on the choice of owner. In the project our goal was to select slab system which is more economical, serviceable, and having more strength for particular building and particular conditions. For this purpose Proposed Hostel of UET Bannu Campus was selected. Beam supported slab, flat plate slab or plate slab, waffle or joist slab were design for the proposed hostel by long hand calculations. The estimated cost of flat plate slab system was much less than those of beams supported and waffle or joist slabs for average spans not more than 20ft. Waffle slab is the most uneconomical slab system for shorter spans.
Nadeem Ullah, Shah Room, Muhammad Ahmad Rana, Umair Anwar Awan, Muhammad Aleem
The Thokar Niaz Baig intersection is a very busy junction in the South-West side of Lahore. It connects Johar town, Raiwind, Campus, Chuburji, and Lahore-Islamabad Motorway through Shahpur interchange. Vehicular jam, long queues, long delays, and sometime accidents during peak hours are frequent at this junction. The rise in the average temperature of atmospheric and noise pollution was observed at this junction due to heavy traffic. For smooth and rapid flow of traffic through this junction, geometric and traffic improvements are of savior importance. To come up with an appropriate solution for the junction, a methodology was devised which includes traffic studies, topographic survey & development of practical alternatives. Traffic studies included a manual classified count, delay, travel time, congestion, and queues. Topographic survey involves establishment of horizontal and vertical control and pulling in the junction in AutoCAD. Two practical alternatives are presented, out of which Option No.1 is recommended to take away. The study revealed that only the grade-separated arrangement at the junction is feasible. Entirely the same, if a link road between Mohlnwal road and Multan road is provided to decrease the number of intersecting legs, the effect would be more feasible. Other traffic engineering solutions like proper bus stops, road signs, and pavement marking can also be implemented to increase the efficiency of the junction.
H.M.Umar, Sohaib Naseer, Muahmmas Rameez Sohail
Concrete is the most extensively used in large-scale constructions where strength, work ability,and durability are main requirements. Engineers are continually pushing the limits upward to improve its performance with the help of innovative chemical admixtures and supplementary cementitious materials. Now a days,mostconcrete mixtures contain supplementary cementitious material which forms part of the cementitious component. The main benefits of SCMs are their ability to replace certain amount of cement and still able to display cementitious property, thusreducing the cost of using Portland cement. This paper investigated the properties of concrete by partial replacement of cementwith5,10,15%and20%ofsilicafumeby weight. Compressive strength of concrete specimens, were compared with concrete specimens, with nosilicafume, at7,14, 28,56 and 90 day’s age. A constant water cement ratio of 0.35 was maintained and to compensate its workability, super-plasticizer was used. Specimenswhich includedboth6inchesdiametercylindersand4 inches cubes were casted and tested in accordance to ASTM standards. Test results indicated improvement, in the compressive strength properties of cube samples by the inclusion of silicafumeas a partial replacement of cement at are placement level of 10% but showed totally opposite behavior in case of cylinders.
Engr.Joher Ali, Atta Ullah Shah
Taifoor zarin, Engr. Muhammad Asif, Yasar Abbas Ur Rehman, Mubashar Javed
Effectiveness and linearity of the audio and power amplifiers are critical elements of communication systems. For critical low power, the active part in amplifiers should be class-B biased, i.e., zero bias. To preserve the level of distortion conventional, negative feedback is applied. Consequently, a nonlinear dynamic feedback loop is obtained. This paper emphasis on the design of the amplifier and establishing stability measures via newly developed techniques. This paper shows the improved efficiency of 87 % of class B power amplifier using negative feedback
Khalid Rehman, Ibrar Ullah, Mansoor Habib
Wireless systems facing some fundamental problems in service regarding some suitable spectrum bands so that to meet with the demand in future. Though, essentially all the radio spectrum is allocated to different services, applications and users, observation provide evidence that usage of the spectrum is actually quite low. In order to overcome this problem and improve spectrum utilization, cognitive radio concept has been proposed. This paper provides an overview of cognitive radio for opportunistic spectrum access and related research topics. Cognitive radio objective is to use inadequate and limited natural resources efficiently without causing excessive interference to the primary licensed users. Consequently, cognitive radio has to sense and understand its spectrum environment, identify temporarily vacant spectrum, transmit adaptively and learn from its behavior. A number of promising concepts for cognitive radio were briefly presented and discussed in this paper in the area of passive and active spectrum awareness, spectrum management and transmit power control.
Anis Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jehangir khan, Muhammad iftikhar Khan
In today modern interconnected power system, High Voltage Transmission lines carries bulk power from generating Stations to Grid stations and also from Transmission grids to distribution Substations. Performance of these lines is considered better if the line losses and voltage drops are in limits. There is also less variation in Power delivered in some specific duration and low Voltage deviation index and system instability. Voltage drops and %regulation of Transmission line depends upon resistance and inductive reactance. Power delivered in MW varies due to load variation or then power availability on grid. Transmission system is imbalanced if there are unequal voltages on receiving side and currents of different magnitudes in three phase system. Peshawar Grids are interconnected to make them reliable and more efficient. This paper presents performance comparison of more than fifteen transmission lines on the basis of line % Regulation, Voltage drops, Voltage deviation and stability indices. Transmission lines with poor performance should be upgraded. Statistical data of all Transmission lines were simulated in commercially available MAT Lab environment to achieve results.
Tanveer Ahmad, Zia Ullah, Mishkat Ullah Jan
Power Inverters have a high range of applications not only in domestic appliances but also in industries for performing variety of operations regarding switching and conversion of electrical energy. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze a three phase inverter using PWM topology to obtain a smooth and pure sinusoidal wave form of good quality which ensures better operation for sensitive electronic appliances.
A pulse width modulated voltage wave forms are generated using an efficient inverter design to minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). A three phase inverter was evaluated first for symmetric PWM modulation and then for asymmetric modulation. In symmetric PWM modulation the reference is sampled at the positive peak of the carrier and is held constant till the next positive peak of the carrier appears. In asymmetric modulation technique the reference signal is sampled at positive as well as at negative peak of the carrier and held constant between two sampled points. An analysis has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the two techniques using simulation models in Matlab/Simulink. The THD analysis as well as Fourier analysis of the designed symmetric and asymmetric inverter is performed using Simulink. The results for different cut-off frequencies have been shown. With optimal modulation index value and number of levels for lower harmonics, it is shown that sinusoidal PWM based inverters not only provide good quality voltage but also reduces voltage stresses on the switches. Furthermore THD is effectively decreased by optimizing cut off frequency of filters.
Zia Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad, Muhammad Hilal Khan
The problem of aerodynamic properties of rotorcraft especially harmonic blade oscillations and rotor vibration transmitted to fuselage are very important with particular reference to rotor. In this paper the longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, main rotor collective pitch angle and tail rotor collective pitch angle are used as control inputs to develop a nonlinear 6 DOF model of a longitudinal rotorcraft. In this research translational/rotational dynamics and rotational kinematic equations of motion are derived for 6 DOF rotorcraft motion about possible equilibrium position. On the basis of these linearized equations, an optimal controller is designed for different flight conditions under different rotor speeds with relevant blade oscillations and rotor vibration effect. Wind tunnel data of an existing rotorcraft is used for simulation purposes. A closed loop feedback controller is designed using MATLAB/ Simulink software. The simulation results obtained by varying control inputs indicate that this approach is well suited to reduce/eliminate the harmonics blade oscillation and rotor vibration.
Mehre-e-Munir, Shehrayar Mehmood, Imran Hussain
A novel technique for miniaturization of microstrip patch antenna is proposed for portable and multifunctional communication systems. The proposed design consist of double fractal patch, H-shaped slot on fractal patch with first iteration and combination of L-shape and U-shape slots on the ground plane. In this way we get smaller size antenna which is 69.29% smaller than the conventional antenna. The most interesting feature of the proposed design is that we are getting multiband response in the frequency range of 1-8 GHZ having directivity in the range of 4.32 dBi - 7.33 dBi, gain in the range of 2.47 dB - 6.34 dB and good impedance bandwidth for desired bands. In the proposed design, double fractal patch is made by employing double substrate in which 1st substrate is FR4 and 2nd substrate is AIR. Co-axial cable is used as a feeding method whereas shorting pin is used between fractal patch and ground plane. By the combination of all these proposed technique size of antenna is reduced and it produces multiband response while the impedance bandwidth and gain are satisfactory for each band .We can adjust different bands by changing position of shorting pin. This type of smaller size antenna has applications in mobile phone for Wi-Fi, WALAN, Wi-Max, ISM band, Bluetooth, C-band, S-band and also in satellite communication.
Noman Alam, Dr.Amjad Ullah
Due to penetration of many Distributed Generators (DGs) in the existing network make the whole system very complex. To handle this issue, segregate it into small manageable groups, each group is called a Micro Grid (MG). However due to their unrivalled arrangement not only the control and proper dispatch of power face problems, the MG experience austere issues regarding protection. In this paper a technique is considered, when low voltage (MG) operating in grid connected mode and shifted to standalone mode due to any transient or common abnormality such as over and under voltage as well as over and under current faults etc., its protection set point should be changed accompanied by switching of grounding breaker and excitation system of DG. For this a numerical relay algorithm will be developed having two groups of protection set points, one protection set point will be used when MG operating in Grid connected mode and other is used when operating in islanding mode and this algorithm will be implemented through auxiliary Relays.
Adnan Ayub, Arjumand Yar Khan
Wireless sensor network has been observed conceded to a large volume of data traffic and it is consist of hundred of thousand of sensor nodes. Such a large volume of data requires integration in order to bring it back to the base station or designated sink. The wireless sensor network is to observe the routine data measurement in some particular conditions like military or wars, usual information or in other major application areas where certain real time data is routed through in larger extent and where quick response is necessary. In meanwhile if non real time event also called unusual event occurred in realistic way such as legitimate arrival of intruder or other certain information which is new and to handle urgently too. For this critical scenario, the best way is to use such scheme, like Clustering based rather than the flat routing in existing work. In this paper the Clustering based Routing is specially design for event detection in Wireless Sensor Network where unusual and special events occur. This technique is an advance improvement over existing work with managed data travelling and energy efficient. The data then transmitted on Quality of Service shortest path to the base station.
Muhib Ur Rahman
In this paper, a compact UWB band notch antenna is proposed. Band notching is achieved by inserting a slot in the radiating patch. The antenna is analyzed for single band notch. The proposed antenna is operating in the frequency range of 3.4 to 10.6 GHz while its performance is not good in the WLAN band (5/6 GHz). The VSWR plot also shows that antenna has one stop band (5/6 GHz). The proposed antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS while its results is verified using CST Microwave studio suite. This miniature size has best matching in the UWB band because of low VSWR and advantageous radiation pattern. The ripples present in higher frequencies of the previous designed antenna has been removed by increasing the length of the ground plane. Moreover the antenna has a very compact size of (18×23 mm2) and could be easily fabricated into portable UWB devices.
Engr.Manzoor Ahmad Khan, Dr. Amjadullah
In high voltage (HV) power equipment the quality of insulator plays vital role in power systems. For insulation purpose various type of materials are used in different states like solid, liquid and gaseous form. Due to the application of high voltages, aging factor and cumulative effect of electrical, chemical and mechanical stresses, the quality of these materials degrades with the passage of time [1-4]. These insulators are not in pure form and having some impurities, due to which small air bubbles are created inside the insulator which are called voids. Due to these voids the strength of insulators weakens and become the cause of Partial Discharge (PDs).Due to the presence of PDs originated at voids in insulators, the quality of such insulation degrades which results in the insulation failure in HV power equipment. In this work the PD activity of an equivalent electric model circuit having void inside solid insulator has studied. A small (air bubble) cylindrical void inside the solid insulator is placed under uniform electric field using parallel plane arrangement. In this study the maximum amplitude of PDs, the frequency of PDs, The duration of PDs and the number of PDs generated in a cycle is measured. In addition, relationship between void parameter and induced charge for cylindrical void is discussed.
Shaheer Shaida Durrani, Muhammad Hilal Khan, Muhammad Imran Khan
A stand alone solar photovoltaic (SPV) street lighting system (SLS) is an outdoor lighting unit used for illuminating a street or an open area. The equipment and maintenance costs associated with a stand-alone solar-powered system are compared with the cost of using electricity to run grid connected street lights. The project focused on the viability of using solar energy to power the lights in the area surrounding Peshawar Cantt, Peshawar. An economic analysis is performed to determine if the project is cost effective or not.This paper focuses about the feasibility to replace grid-powered street lamps with a stand-alone system street .The renewable energy source selected for this project is a solar photovoltaic panel. The study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of a stand-alone systems and to analyze the decision to replace the grid connected street lights.The viability of solar energy in Peshawar is determined by weather conditions and the amount of solar insolation that the area received throughout the year. A comparison will be made between commercially stand-alone systems against grid tied system for street lights.
Hisham Khalil, Usman Gul, Daud Mustafa Minhas
Design and comparison of log periodic asymmetric diplexer with symmetric and asymmetric feed line is presented in this paper. The individual channel filter has asymmetric frequency response. The doubly terminated low pass prototype is selected. Common transformer is used to feed for both channel filters. Cross coupled open loop ring resonator type microstrip filter is selected for diplexer. A direct formula is presented for dimension of nth channel log periodic multiplexer. The design is simulated in ADS with 0.9GHz and 1.45GHz channel filter. The in band performance of channel filters and inter channel isolation is improved by compensating the resonant lengths. A comparison of symmetric and asymmetric feed line diplexer is also demonstrated.
Muhammad Usman Gul, Hisham Khalil
This paper is develop a solar photovoltic sys-tem simulation with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) function using matlab-simulink software and ob-tain the behaviours of the real photovoltic systems. A model of the most important component i the photovoltic system, the solar module, is the first to have been established. the characteristics of designed solar module simulate and com-pared with those of original field test data under diﬀerent weather & insolation conditions. after that impelement the model of photovoltic system with maximum power point tracker, which was developed by DC-DC buck0boost con-verter. The accuracy and practicability of the proposed photovoltic simulation system are, therefore, validated.
Ahsan Altaf, Mehr E Munir
A novel technique for miniaturization of microstrip patch antenna is proposed for Portable and multifunctional Communication systems. Our proposed design consists of fractal patch, PI-Shaped slot on fractal patch with first iteration and combination of L-Shape and U-Shape slots on the Ground plane. . In this way we get smaller size antenna which is 79.12% smaller than the conventional antenna. The most interesting feature of our proposed design is that we are getting multiband response in the frequency range of 1-8GHZ having Directivity in the range of 3.72dBi-5.16dBi and good impedance bandwidth for desired bands. As we have used the fractal patch with substrate in which substrate is FR4.Co-axial cable is used as a feeding method. We have design the PI-shape on both fractal patch. We also employed shorting pin between fractal patch and ground plane. By the combination of all these proposed technique size of antenna is reduced 79.12%s and it produces multiband response while the impedance bandwidth and gain are satisfactory for each band .We can adjust different bands by changing position of shorting pin. This type of smaller size antenna has applications in mobile phone for DCS/DPS, ISM band, C-band, L-band, S-band and also in Radar application.
Muhammad Jehangir khan, Anis Ur Rehman, Sheharyar Mehmood
This paper presents a comparative performance evaluation of all 132 kV grid stations and 132kV short transmission lines in Peshawar division. The performance of grids and transmission lines were estimated by statistical data analysis for summer season with peak loads. Line losses, efficiency, transformers loading index (TLI) and transmission line loading index (LLI) parameters were considered for the evaluation of poor and high performance 132kV grid stations and transmission lines connecting these grids in a large inter connected system. The power transformers and transmission lines with more than 50% TLI and LLI values were declared over loaded according to N-1 international standard security system for power system. Graphical presentations for clear comparison was provided, hence the over loaded lines should be reassured and transformers should be up graded with their loading capacities, wherever it is required. The results and analysis will be helpful for local power utilities in power system enhancements forecasting and up gradations in near future.
Farhad Ali, Samiulhaq, Ilyas Khan, Arshad Khan, Asma Khalid
This article studies the free convection flow of viscous fluid in a rotating frame. Both heat and mass transfer phenomenon are considered. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid over an infinite disk is set into impulsive motion in the presence of thermal radiation and thermal diffusion effects. Exact solutions are obtained using the Laplace transform technique; satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. These solutions are plotted graphically for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in order to see the effects of the various parameters entering into the problem. The results show that with increasing rotation parameter primary velocity decreases whereas the absolute value of the secondary velocity increases.
Mansoor Habib, Sarmad Ullah Khan, Khawaja Muhammad Yahya
The advancement in vehicular networks using global positioning system, wireless sensor networks and image processing technologies plays an important role in developing attractive applications for the betterment and ease of every individual. More specifically, to get the information of any surrounding object or place while driving is the main objective of this paper. To achieve the desired objective, we use the integration of global positioning system, inertial tracking, eye gaze technology, computer vision and augmented reality. We have practically implemented the proposed system to check its accuracy by comparing the obtained results of an object or place with its actual position and information.
Muhammad Sajid Rehman
Software developers are trying to optimize their processes to better support the business in a way to reduce cost, improve quality, quick deliveries, gain credibility and improve time to market. In order to achieve these goals, many of the organizations moved to offshore outsourcing. Some of them moved to agile application development and a very few use both of them. At first look, offshore software development with agile practices seems to be a mismatch. Most of the people think that the blend of these two extremes is like inviting a disaster. On the other side, a few people after experiencing, now believe that blend of these two extremes methodologies can bring remarkable benefit to both ends.
Muhammad Ismail, Taifoor zarin, Najam Us Saqib
Nowadays it is very difficult to confidentially transferring of message or important data on any network because hackers and crackers always there in the wake of it. They always want to harm the person and in this case the sender or the receiver has to pay the price for it. Polybius checkerboard and steganography are the most effective methods to protect our network from attacker. So for this reason this research paper is proposed that we can make our work more secure by the techniques of Polybius checkerboard (Polybius square table) by applying Fibonacci sequence in it and steganography.
Muhammad Hannan, Muhammad Saeed, Shehzad
The Curriculum-Based Course Timetabling (CB-CTT) problem is a weekly based problem where set of courses are scheduled in lectures, and every lecture have room and timeslot. This schedule must satisfy all the hard constraints and minimize the soft constraint as much as possible. This research proposed a Two Phase Cascading (TPC) technique for solving CB-CTT problem. Phase I creates a course wise cluster with the help of hierarchical clustering technique and assigns priority to each cluster and courses in a cluster. Phase II generates the timetable by selecting the higher priority cluster and course recursively. We have tested our proposed TPC technique on different datasets of International Timetabling Competition (ITC-2007). Experimental results show that proposed TPC technique perform better in terms of time and constraints for simple as well as complex datasets as compared to existing technique.
Abdul Salam, Sohail Abbas, Yousaf Khan, Sanaul Haq, Saeed Ullah Jan
This paper is about the selection of scheduling algorithm for real time system. In this paper we compared different scheduling algorithms and from these comparison we get another algorithm which is good in performance as compared to the existing one. First we compare ACO and EDF but both have some merits and demerits. ACO is not good when system is under loaded, preemptive and single processor while the result of ACO is good in overloaded condition with a lot of execution time. From the comparison of ACO and EDF another algorithm is developed called adaptive algorithm which is best in both overloaded and under loaded condition.  Then we compared EDF and GA based scheduling algorithm. EDF is used in under loaded condition and when the system become overloaded it changes to GA based algorithm. From the comparison of these two algorithms we get another algorithm which is also called adaptive algorithm. Performance of both algorithms is measured by using success rate, effective CPU utilization and execution time
Brekhna, Dr Muhammad Asim Noor, Ghassan Husnain
E-Government is the usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in order to take provision of the processes of the public sector organization and as well as for the delivery of service/facilities to the citizen. These services will not only facilitate the individuals but will develop a strong relationship between the state and its citizens. Developed, developing and under developing countries pursue the information technologies in order to provide better services to the citizens. For this purpose these countries devise e-government projects in public sector. But most of these projects fail to achieve desired results either fully or partially in the developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to identify all those challenges that are faced by E-government projects in the developing countries. Furthermore this paper will also categorize these challenges.
Abdul Hameed Memon, Asif Ali, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Junaid, Awais Ahmed
Continuous depletion of conventional fuels has emphasized to find the alternate energy resources. For this, biodiesel is being considered as one of the potential alternative for future. Previous studies have highlighted various sources for production of bio-diesel. This study investigated the potential of using mustard oil cultivated in Pakistan as a source for bio-diesel production to cope with ever increasing problem of energy crises. Mustard seed is an indigenous crop cultivated in Pakistan. Presently mustard oil is used for both edible and non-edible purposes. Reactive distillation technique was used for preparation of Bio-diesel from Mustard oil. A lab scale Sieve –Tray reactive distillation reactor system was designed and fabricated locally. Bio-diesel so produced from mustard oil available locally was used for assessing the performance of diesel engine. Bio-Diesel was produced using Methanol to oil ratio of 4:1 (Molar) and column temperature of 650C. It was then mixed with petro-diesel in different proportions and used as fuel for diesel engine. The practical results showed that the biodiesel can be blended with diesel and used for running diesel engines without any modification in the engine. It was found that the ratio as high as 80% Bio-Diesel with 20% Petro-Diesel gave better performance of diesel engine.
Lead-free solders have got extensive attention in Electronic industry, after restrictions imposed by Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Tin-Silver-Copper (Sn-Ag-Cu, or simply ‘SAC’) solders hold a strong position in replacing conventional lead solders, with improved mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. This paper focuses on study of micro-structure of Sn-3.0%Ag-0.5%Cu (SAC305) solder joint Inter-metallic Layer (IML). SAC305 solder samples are prepared using standard metallographic techniques and images are obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope. The cross-sections of the samples are examined and their Inter-Metallic-Layer (IML) growth is calculated by thermally aging the samples at elevated temperature. The IML growth is then compared to the established theoretical model. The results show the increasing thickness of IML on elevated temperature of 200ᵒC with increasing aging time.
Rashid Mehmood Khan, Faid Gul, Ayesha Kausar, Maryam Iqbal
This study makes an attempt to compare the financial performance of privatized and public sector banks of Pakistan during the time period of 2005-2012. Using the sample size of 4 privatized banks and 4 public sector banks and implementing the methodology of Kader, Asarpota and Al-Maghaireh (2007), this study measures financial performance by calculating different categories’ of ratios and compared the mean differences of privatized banks with public sector banks. The findings of the study indicate that privatized banks are more profitable than the banks which are still in public sector. Secondly privatized banks are better in operating efficiency as all three ratios of operating efficiency provide a significant positive means for privatized banks. Privatized banks provide significantly more advances, have low cash & cash equivalents (liquidity) and have higher debt to assets, debt to equity and equity multiplier ratios than the public sector banks. The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that privatization improves the efficiency of firms.
The purpose of this study is to find the impact of packaging on consumer buying behavior in Peshawar city Pakistan. The study includes eight independent variables and one dependent variable. the questionnaire were filled from student, teachers, and many business man in Peshawar region the study is based on packaging impact on consumer buying behavior on cosmetics product includes (shampoo, beauty cream, toothpaste, hair oil, perfume, body spray). There are 30 question in questionnaire about the nine variables which are measured on five point likert scale. The population is unknown and non-probability sampling technique were used so convenient sampling was used for data collection. Many tests are applied. The first test is the validity and reliability test, the validity test find out that the data is valid or not. The data are valid when there is not any ambiguity in the research instrument especially in questionnaire while the reliability test shows that the data is clear from random error. The regression test is also applied to measure the relationship between dependent and independent variables, the first table is model summary which describe how much independent variables explained the dependent variable. The Anova or analysis of variance table shows the significance of the overall model the standard for sig is less than .05. The coefficient table shows the significance of individual variables and also the contribution of individual independent variable on dependent variable. The correlation test is also applied to measure the strength of association between variables. Study shows that packaging strongly influence the consumer purchasing decision and the importance of packaging increase frequently and now the packaging is important p of the marketing mix because there are a lot of advantages of packaging. The packaging not only gives advantage or benefits to the product but it also give benefits to the maker of the product in shape of its role in consumer buying.
Pakistan is basically an agrarian economy. The greater proportion of GDP is contributed by agricultural sector. Basically the overall development of the economy is based on the proper management of farm land and improvement of agro-based industries. This study seeks answer to the question, “How farm land should be managed, which is conducive to enhance the farm productivity?”
The Pakistan Agriculture Council has divided the province into four different climatic regions. It is proposed that one district (say stratum) selected randomly from each region would fairly represent the province. A complete list of villages in the sampled districts has been prepared, which serves as a sampling frame. It is assumed that the basic agrarian features within the same climatic zone are homogenous, thus ten villages from each district have been randomly chosen. The total sample size of 200 farmers has been interviewed and data on tenure statue, operational holdings, irrigation status fragmentation, water logging/salinity and land management etc. are collected.
It has been evidenced from the results and discussion below that the farm land has not been properly managed. Smallness of small farms, inappropriate tenure status uneconomic land utilization, the problems of fragmentation, water logging and salinity indicate that the overall agrarian structure has not been appropriately managed and is not conducive to increase the rate of economic growth. Due to this reason the overall development of the economy has been stagnant.
For appropriate farm management, it has been suggested that new policy for land reforms is required in such a way that ownership of the farm land should not be changed, but the size of operational holdings should be equalized. There is sufficient room to improve the farm management by proper land utilization, better cropping pattern and enhancing the intensity of cropping.
The potential size of operational holdings has been decreased, because of water logging and salinity. Farmers have to be educated and guided to use gypsum and green manures or to cultivate such variety of seeds which are salt tolerant. This will reduce salinity in the soil of farm land. They may also be motivated to launch the drainage system in the water logged area. A small financial support by the state may help to rehabilitate the saline and water logged farm lands.
The Requirements of our Society were pointed out in the 20th Century by some financial innovations. Among these innovations, most of the financial products were launched for the interests of the economically developed countries. In the same way, the need of an Islamic Society were also addressed and Serious steps has been taken for solving those problems. The concept of micro financing and Islamic banking emerged almost at the same time in 1970’s from its modest beginning. Islamic Banking and Microfinance both are independently studied; however the correlation between them is not so familiar and need a lot of research. The purpose of this study is to find out the importance of Islamic financial institutions, in view of their prospects and feasibility, to merge with the Microfinance activities, in their operations. The proposed co-integrated structure would be practicable, since the objectives of Islamic banking and Microfinance are consistent with each other, i.e. equitable distribution of wealth in the society and social justice. This study will examine the products and services, offered by Islamic financial institutions, for example Murabaha, which may be applied in the small business of farm animals, Ijarah may be applied in the Car wash and Diminishing Musharakah for small vehicles.
Muhammad Nauman Habib, Muhammad Kamran
This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of job overload and On-the-job behavior and to find out if person-organization-fit can mediate the relationship between job overload and on-the-job behavior. To test hypothesis, teaching profession was selected and private sector higher education institutes in Peshawar were selected. Responses were collected via questionnaires from 232 respondents. Regression was used as a statistical tool and found positive relation between JO and OJB whereas POF had played significant but negative mediating role between JO and OJB.
Sania Zaheer Ali, Dr. Humera Manzoor, Dr. Mehboobur Rashid, Dr. Wisal Ahmad
Organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior plays a significant role in functioning of an organization, as it influences our work related attitude and behaviors. Though numerous studies on organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior can be found in the western societies, not much is known about their relationship in the context of developing and third world countries. This paper is an empirical research that tests the relationship/association between organizational justice and organization citizenship behavior based on equity theory and social exchange theory in the largest telecommunication company of Pakistan, that is, Pakistan Telecommunication Limited (PTCL). A cross sectional study was conducted and data was collected through a survey from 200 employees working in various positions in PTCL. Results indicate that there is a meaningful positive relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. The relationship between interactional justice and organizational citizenship behavior was found to be stronger as compared to the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior, and distributive justice and organizational citizenship behavior. Findings show that employees’ perception of distributive justice is endorsed when supervisors communicate with their subordinates about the way decisions were reached, and provide a justification when desirable outcomes are not met.
Sahib Kamal, Professor Muhammad Asrar, Professor Muhammad Younes, Professor Dr. Anwar Fazil Chishti
This study of the academic performance of special children found that majority (58.34%) of them has bad academic results. For the basic reasons determining academic performance, special-children depression (DC), teachers’ contribution (TC), parents’ contribution (PC), school facilitation contribution (SFC) and contribution of poverty (CP) were tried as explanatory variables. Results indicated that almost all explanatory variables were found statistically significant at α < 0.01. As far as the signs of explanatory variables were concerned, variables TC, PC, and SFC had positive signs, suggesting that these variables were contributing positively towards academic performance (API) while the signs of variables (DC) and (CP) were negative, suggesting that these variables were adversely contributing.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that special counselors be made available in each of the institutions of special students who are specially assigned the duty of lowering special students anxiety and depression. It was also recommended that special care be given to appoint administrative and teaching staff who give particular care to teaching and also provide due respect to the special students. Parents of the handicapped students should be aware to educate their children without discrimination of male and female and normal/abnormal. A good learning environment at school should be provided to special students, and teachers should be aware to teach according to the needs of special students’ psychology.
Saqib Yaqoob Malik, Professor Dr. Anwar Fazil Chishti, Saqib Shahzad
This study aims to find out the satisfaction of employee with regards to various facets (pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, coworkers, nature of work, communication) of job satisfaction in public and private sector organizations located in twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The study uses the Spector’s (1985) Job Satisfaction Survey for the purpose. Furthermore the moderating role of power distance has been investigated between facets of job satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. In addition to using the Spector’s own methodology of evaluating employees responses by adding scores obtained through a 6-items Likert scale and evaluating those at three levels (Dissatisfaction, Ambivalence/Neutral and Satisfaction), this study extends the evaluation methodology by generating variables of interest, through statistical way of taking means of the employees responses and comparing it with the mid-points (One-Sample t-test). The results indicated that the interaction terms in all nine job satisfaction facets cases have turned out statistically insignificant (p > 0.10), suggesting that ‘Power distance’ does not moderate between job satisfaction facets and overall job satisfaction for the study area.
ZUNNOORAIN KHAN, DR AMJID AMIN and DR NASIR KARIM
Marketing is the driving force behind success of any organisation and business. The most influential factor in success of any business and organisation is “Marketing”. Modern marketing is in stark contrast with the marketing during the last century, when manufacturers produce a product and sell it to customers with the help of advertisements, promotions, discount and such techniques. During mass production era, only “monologue” communication was present between the supplier and customer. After the collection of secondary data, primary data is to be collected from general public with a sample size of about 100. The primary data shall be collected with the help of a questionnaire designed to outline the implications of the marketing techniques on the minds of ordinary consumers. The primary data collected shall be of quantitative in nature and shall be analysed for further interpretations From the study of the respondents belonging to different major mobile companies, Price plan seems to be the key to success for the companies as it is attracting the high proportion of customers. Q-Mobile and Samsung have gained majority of the customers on this ground.
Dr.Wasal Khan, Dr. Perveen Khan, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Iqbal
The education system of Pakistan, in general, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in particular, suffers from deterioration. Most of the schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa direly need improvement. Turning schools into centers of Excellence requires exploration of factors that could lead them to the apex of excellence. The study was carried out in Boys’ Secondary Schools both in Public and Private Sectors located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The population of the study included all the parents whose children were studying in those schools. Their inclusion in the study was based on the consideration that they are important stakeholders in schooling of their children. The sample comprised 120 parents purposively selected proportionately from 30 sampled Boys’ High Schools (26 in private sector and 04 in public sector). The data were collected through interviews with purposively selected parents, whose children were in 10th class of each sampled school. The interview items were of multi-dimensional nature. The data were given both quantitative and qualitative treatment. The outcome of the study revealed a number of factors based on parents’ responses and expectations that could help convert a school into a center of excellence.
Parents suggested various factors that could lead the schools to the apex of excellence. According to them teachers should be well trained with up-dated knowledge. There should be curricular and co-curricular activities, community involvement, committed teachers and competent principals’, up to-date and relevant curricula. Based on parents’ suggestions, the study recommended that merit should be strictly followed in teachers’ appointments, teachers’ training should be up-dated, healthy competitions and co-curricular activities should be given due importance; home school relation should be strengthened and principals and teachers should treat students like their children.
Dr. Tauqir Ahmad Khan, Atta Ullah Shah
The article investigates the level of satisfaction of B.Ed and M.Ed workshop participants (students) using structured questionnaire method. The postgraduate workshops are held bi-annually (M.Ed) and annually (B.Ed.) all across Pakistan and are an integral part of Allama Iqbal Open University’s distant learning programs. The present study is delimited to the data collected from students of tehsil Attock of regional campus Attock and further to the students of M.Ed and B.Ed. In order to avoid ‘confirmatory predicament’ the questionnaire was structured using five point Likert scale. The data was converted into percentage and each response was analysed separately and the findings were tabulated on the basis of accept/reject ratio. The questionnaire sought information ranging from academic nurturing to physical environment and further to management issues. The objective of the study was to investigate not only the utility of workshops but also to judge the performance of newly established Attock regional campus. The findings indicate a higher level of satisfaction among the students regarding all three assessed aspects i.e. academic, administrative and environmental.
Muhammad Saeed, Jameel Belader
The aim of the study is to investigate whether accent of a teacher affects the students’ learning achievements. Mayer, Sobko, & Mautone (2003) believe that accented voices are not natural to native speakers of a language and which requires more cognitive resources to process the information and hence reduces the quality of students’ learning experience. To test the validity of the assumption an experimental study was conducted in a private school in Mingawara, Swat. A fluent non-native Romanian Pashtu speaker who has already taught the subject of mathematics for four months to three different classes and at the end a comprehensive examination is conducted. The same classes were then taught by a native Pashtu speaker for the next term and a comprehensive examination was conducted at the end of the term. The results of both the terms were correlated and paired sample t-test was applied on the data. Based on the value of t-test which is – 7.068 the result is significant at the level of 0.05 to confirm the hypothesis that accent of the teacher affects learning achievements of the schools’ students.
Farman Elahi, Akhtar Ali, Atta Ullah Shah
A Work life balance is always a
challenge for employed people in all organizations due to increasing job
demands. This becomes even more difficult for female work force due to number
of psychological and social issues. The share of the female work human resource
is marginal not because of mainly low literacy rates but also difficult job
environment, lack of security and leisure time and other social issues. This
has resulted to very low contribution of the female workers.
In this research, questionnaire survey was conducted to 100 female workers in various organizations to explore the major problems faced by them leading to less participation of the females in jobs. The results have shown that working women are faced with many psychological, social and physiological issues. The discrimination at the workplaces to the female workers, less or no leisure time and no additional incentives make them frustrated and most of them leave the jobs.
It has been recommended that awareness and motivation is required amongst the female workers as well as employers so that the discrimination against female workers is avoided and more female workers are encouraged for employment to play their role in socio-economic development of the country.
( Students’ Poster Presentations)
Nafeesa Ishaq and Faisal Khan
Averos Life Sciences and Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases. In this study, a comprehensive host-pathogen protein interaction network for TB in humans was constructed.
We obtained protein-protein interaction data from two main studies, i.e. Raman and Chandra (2008) and Wang (2010). The aim of our research was to construct an annotated protein interaction network for TB by utilizing all available data in that is publicly available and to analyse to for network-inspired smart drug discovery.
The Raman and Chandra (2008) study analyzed MTB interactome and the potential pathway to drug resistance. We gathered 616 unique protein interactions and 2750 binary interactions from their dataset. From the Wang (2010) paper, 93 unique protein interactions and 143 binary interactions from the datatset were gathered. The data was mapped into the same format using Perl and combined into a single file. Visualization was done using Cytoscape through an organic layout.
Rabail Khan and Faisal Khan
Averos Life Sciences and Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University
Protein interaction networks are increasingly becoming a handy tool for biologist to study the interaction of different disease related proteins at a systems level. There have been several databases which store and curate HBV protein-protein interaction data including VirusMint and IntAct. The aim of this study is to construct a comprehensive pathogen-host (HBV-Human) protein interaction network that brings together all existing interaction data that is available. We compiled all available interaction datasets for Hepatitis B Virus proteins and mapped unique interactions into a single format. We used both binary interaction data from Yeast-2-hybrid studies and co-complex data from affinity purification studies. The network was then constructed using Cytoscape using an organic layout. Currently, we are analysing the Hepatitis B Virus-Human interactome using several approaches to understand the pathway from a systems-perspective.
Khadija Salim and Faisal Khan
Averos Life Sciences and Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a worldwide chronic viral health problem. Numerous research studies has been conducted to study the proteins involved in the cause and development of HCV. Protein Interaction Networks (PINs) are great means of studying proteins that play different roles in the spread of HCV and helps in the development of antiviral drugs that targets the host cellular proteins.
To study the HCV protein interaction network of the existing discovered proteins in Human and Hepacivirus, the literature was studied and the protein interaction data was collected from three databases; HCV Pro, BioGRID and VirusMint. A total of 154 Viral-Human Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) were obtained from BioGRID, 390 Viral-Human binary PPIs were obtained from VirusMint and 553 Protein-Protein Interactions were obtained from HCVPro in which 29 PPIs were non-redundant Virus-VIrus PPIs and 524 were non-redundant Virus-Human PPIs.
This data collected mapped into same format using custom Perl scripts and combined into a single file. Visualization of protein network data was then conducted using the software tool, Cytoscape, through an organic layout. Currently the analysis of the HCV protein network is being carried out by various methods to predict the protein interactions which can be more rational targets for disrupting the viral infection pathway which causes Hepatitis C.
Sarah Farooq and Faisal Khan
Averos Life Sciences and Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University
Malaria is one of the most significant tropical disease we face today. It has infected about 200 million people and killed half a million in 2013 alone. It has an equally significant vector, the Anopheles mosquito, which has been the greatest killer of man. To understand why and how malaria is one of the greatest threats to the global health and economy we use protein-protein interaction data from different experimental sources and datasets to draw an integrated protein-level picture of the interactions of host, pathogen and vector protein interaction.
BioGRID and IntAct were used as the primary databases for collecting binary interaction data. 2846 unique interactions from BioGRID and 2823 unique interactions from IntAct were gathered, parsed and mapped using custom Perl scripts. The data was stored as a single text file for network visualization using different layouts in Cytoscape.
Further analyses are being carried out to gather insights on the network toplogy and modularity. Using these inferences, we hope to be able to add to our systems-level understanding of the proteins involved in this deadly disease.
Muhammad Adil Salim and Faisal Khan
Averos Life Sciences, Institute of Integrative Biosciences, CECOS University& Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar With almost 50 % of the world’s population living in the dengue epidemic regions, about 350 million people suffer from Dengue Fever annually. Protein-protein interaction network of dengue with its vector and host, Aedes aegypti and Homo sapiens which can give us significant systems-level insights. Although research has been done to decipher the interaction between dengue and its host proteins, the reliability of these interaction are still questioned. In this study we gathered protein interaction data from four research studies (Doolitle et al, Mairiang et al , Guo et al, Khadka et al). This include data from Y2H, Co-IP and computational prediction methods. We got only seven human proteins shared by the three data sets which we consider responsible for high confidence protein interactions. We further analyse the gene ontology annotations, KEGG pathway memberships and Pfam domain compositions of these seven proteins. In addition to that, we construct two combined networks of Dengue proteins, each with Aedes and human proteins.